Author Guidelines

Article Types

Carpel press encourages authors to submit manuscript in various formats to fulfill the scientific needs. Select relevant article type that appears in the drop-down menu during online manuscript submission. Please ensure that your manuscript should follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for ethics.

Research Articles

Research Articles report on primary research conducted by an author. Since, they are based on original observations, popularly called as ‘Original article.’  Consideration for publication is based on originality, novelty, and significance of research work. Authors are suggested to follow the EQUATOR Network for Research Articles. Research involving human subjects is requested to take approval from ethical board or relevant authority prior submission. Research articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Materials and Methods, 4) Results, 5) Discussion 6) Reference. Negative or null studies may also be submitted under this article type. 

Review Articles

Review articles are state-of-art article written by an expert in field to analyze recent innovations or to compare published literatures in particular subject. Since, they are based on primary research, popularly called as ‘summary article.’ Review articles are emphasizes on critical discussion that resulted in evidence based conclusion. Review articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Sub-heading relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion, 5) Conclusion, 6) Reference. Review articles must not include unpublished material (data from unpublished manuscripts) and may be rejected in review or ask for revision, if reported.  

Mini Review

Mini Review articles are focused on current area of research and its progress. They elaborate the summary of review such a way that knowledge should be forward to reader without hurdle. They are designed to discuss the different school of thoughts and controversies, current research gaps, and potential growth opportunity in field. Review articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Sub-heading relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion, 5) Reference.

Perspective Articles

Perspective articles are focused on selective area of investigation. They are provides overview of current advancement in subject, future perspectives and opinions on other authors published data. Perspectives are selective in coverage unlike review articles. Perspective articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Sub-heading relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion, 5) Reference.

Systematic Review

A systematic review is a highly rigorous literature review that uses systematic and clearly defined methods to identify, categorize, analyse and report evidences on clearly formulated question. Systematic Reviews should be presented in the 1) Introduction, 2) Methods, 3) Results, 4) Discussion format. Systematic review should define the question in term of study design (PICOS), participants, interventions, comparators, systematic review protocol, search strategy, data sources, studies sections, data extraction procedure, and kind of analysis used. The subject must be clearly defined and title section with appropriate term like systematic review/meta-synthesis or meta-analysis. Results part should include a flow diagram of the studies retrieved for the review, study selection and characteristics, synthesized findings, assessment of risk of bias. We strongly encourage authors to comply reporting guidelines in your field (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines, CochraneCampbell).

Editorials

Editorials are discussions related to a specific article or issue written by the host editor. They convey to the reader the aims and objectives of the research topic in broader context. As the final contributing article to the research topic, editorials should be submitted once all accepted articles have been published. Length of the article should vary, depending on research topic and number of articles in the issue.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are based on interventional studies like safety and efficacy trials, surrogate endpoint studies, pilot studies etc. All clinical trials must be registered in public repository before research process and that Trial Registration Number (TRN) should be included in abstract part, please visit the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Registration will facilitate the sharing of information among researchers, clinicians, and patients that will increase the credibility in scientific community. Clinical Trial articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Materials and Methods (including flow diagram example CONSORT), 4) Results, 5) Discussion.

WHO definition of clinical trials “A clinical trial is any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes […] Interventions include but are not restricted to drugs, cells and other biological products, surgical procedures, radiologic procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, process-of-care changes, preventive care, etc. This definition includes Phase I to Phase IV trials.”       

Case Reports

Case reports provide evidence of efficacy of interventions in real world. Case reports are valuable literatures for the recognition of new/rare diseases, in evaluating the therapeutic effects, and costs of interventions; and in the improving problem-based medical education. Case report can be present in the form of case study, case report, or case description. They contain a significant diagnosis or interventional outcome that challenges the previous clinical perspectives. We strongly encourage authors to follow the CARE guidelines and submit a completed CARE checklist as a supplementary file. Authors are requested to obtain written informed consent from the patients (or their legal representatives) for the publication of case report or accompanying image. The consent form must be available to handling Editor if requested.  Reports should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Case description, 4) Figures & Tables, 5) Diagnostic assessment, 6) Discussion, 7) Patient perspective. Author must include the title “Case Report: ‘area of focus.’

Opinion Articles

Opinion articles reflect the author’s opinion about a subject. It may be an interpretation of latest research findings, evaluation of the methods used, pros or cons of scientific hypotheses. Opinion articles are based on constructive discussion, which challenges the current state of knowledge in subject. Opinion articles should have the following format: 1) Introduction, 2) Sub-heading relevant for the subject, 3) Discussion, 4) Reference.

Short Communications

Short Communications are brief presentation of original and significant data obtained from cutting-edge research. Short communications are arranged in same way as full length paper but the whole research findings are summarized in brief. Short communications are based on new research findings and have significant impact on current problem; they are usually prioritized by journals over other article types.


Editorial Policy

What is peer review?

Peer-review is the system used to judge the novelty, validity, significance and originality of work before publication.

“Peer review is the critical assessment of manuscripts submitted to journals by experts who are not part of the editorial staff” as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).  

Types of Peer Review

There are three major types of peer review used by publishers. Carpel Press uses open peer review that reduces possible editorial bias. Reviewers knows who the authors are, and the authors know who the reviewers are.

Peer Review Process

Authors submit manuscripts to journal. Editorial staff checked the manuscripts to ensure they are complete and prepared according to the journal’s instructions. Each manuscript then needs to be read by an editor, to assess its suitability for the journal according to editorial policies and ethical standards. Later, it is sent out for review to external reviewers. The reviewers return manuscript to editorial office with assessment report/opinion, report to be assessed by the editor, who then makes a decision, on whether to reject the manuscript, to accept it pending satisfactory revision, or to accept it as it stands. For manuscripts accepted pending revision, the authors will submit a revised manuscript that will go through all or some of the above stages. Once a manuscript has been revised satisfactorily (maximum two revisions allowed) it can be accepted and put into the production process to be prepared for publication. All articles (except Editorials) are externally peer reviewed before a final decision to maintain high standards of peer-review.

Complaints and Appeals

All complaints/appeals related to peer review process will be handled as per COPE guidelines.  Authors are requested to submit their appeals and complaints through email communication ([email protected]). 

Licenses and Copyright

We are open access publisher and apply the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license. More information is available on the About The Publisher section of the homepage.

Rights and Permission

Manuscript containing third party material(s) are needs to obtain written permission from copyright holder prior submission. It is author’s responsibility to take written permission for reusing the material(s), including any associated licensing fee. Publisher will not be liable for any legal dispute arise due to copyright infringement.


Publishing Ethics

Authorship

Carpel Press follows the ICMJE guidelines of authorship. Generally authors are recognized on the basis of 4 criteria:

1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND

3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND

4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. The following recommendations are intended to ensure that contributors who have made substantive intellectual contributions to a paper are given credit as authors, but also that contributors credited as authors understand their role in taking responsibility and being accountable for what is published.

If authors request removal or addition of an author after manuscript submission or publication, journal editors should seek an explanation and signed statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and from the author to be removed or added.

Role of Corresponding Author

The corresponding author is the one individual who takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely way, and should be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information should questions about the paper arise after publication. It is primary responsibility of corresponding author to deliver all the information among coauthors related to manuscript.

Further change in authorship (addition or removal) will be accepted only after written consent from all the initially listed authors.    

Acknowledgement

Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group. Corresponding authors are advised to obtain written permission to be acknowledged from all acknowledged individuals.

Conflict of Interest

It is essential for author to disclose conflict of interest (COI) at the time of manuscript submission. Conflict of interest generally occurs when primary interest (patient’s welfare) is influenced by secondary interest (financial benefits).  Financial relationships (e.g. employment, consultancies, stock share, honoraria, patents, and paid expert testimony) are the most common interests, while personal relationships, rivalries, academic competition, and intellectual beliefs may also represent as conflicts. Hiding interest or ‘discloser after article publication’ is not acceptable and editor may right to retract or reject published paper. If there is no conflict of interests, please declare same at the time of submission. Your declaration will be published within the article if accepted.

Errors

Corrigendum and Letter to the Editor

Error is a part of publishing practice whether it happens from publisher side or by an author. If author detects there is a mistake in their published article, the online version of record cannot be changed in any way, but a correction (corrigendum) is published to appear alongside the article online. Authors are advised to communicate editorial office a soon as possible regarding correction. Be noted that errors do not change the direction/significance of results, interpretations, and conclusions of the articles.

If other researchers disagree with aspects of a published article, or have identified flaws, they can write a letter to the editor through email. Journal will publish rapid response comments attached to article online.

Retraction and Expression of Concern

If author finds there is a mistake in their calculations that invalidates the article, the journal publishes a retraction which appears alongside the article online. However, journal can republish retracted article after rectification and reassessment of paper, if finds error was unintentional.

Editors can publish expression of concern, if there is an investigation underway because of data fabrication; data falsification (including deceptive manipulation of images), purposeful failure to disclose relationships and activities; and plagiarism. In case of misconduct, it is necessary for the Editors to inform the authors’ institute, funders and ethics committees in line with COPE Guidelines.

Plagiarism

All submitted manuscript is cross check by plagiarism-detection software. Any discrepancy in content such as copying or reusing text, images, ideas, or data from other sources, will comes under investigation. Editor reserve the right to reject, correct or retract manuscript in any stage of publication, if report plagiarism. Editors and reviewers are requested to inform editorial office soon after detecting plagiarism in manuscript.

Duplicate Submission 

Duplicate publication is publication of an article that overlaps substantially with one already published, without attribution to the previous publication. Manuscript submitted in more than one journal simultaneously cannot be consider for publication, if published retract/reject with or without informing author.

Studies Involving Humans and Animals

Studies Involving Human Subjects

All investigations involving human material and data, their reporting should be carried out accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. All research on human subject should be approved from an independent local, regional or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, institutional review board). In manuscript authors should specify the name of the ethics committee or other relevant authority that approved the study protocol (with reference number). If ethics committee has been exempted the author from Helsinki declaration; author should disclose the committee name and explanation behind the decision.

For all research involving human subjects, written informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent/legal guardian where appropriate ) and a statement detailing this should appear in the manuscript. For studies involving vulnerable participants or participants at risk of potential coercion, detailed information regarding the steps taken to ensure informed consent must be provided. If consent was not obtained, please specify why and whether this was approved by the ethics committee. 

Patients have a right to privacy and it should be on priority while publishing the article in journals. We are in favor not to disclose the identifying information such as names, initials, and hospital details in manuscript unless the information is essential for scientific purposes. Authors are requested to provide written inform consent from patient or participant for the use of identifying information in publication. 

Studies Involving Animal Subjects

Experiments involving animals, author must comply the state of animal care and licensing guidelines under which the study is performed and reported (refer ARRIVE: Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments). Research involving vertebrates or regulated invertebrates must have been approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) or equivalent ethics committee. Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE). If ethics approval was not required or if the study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval; author should disclose the committee name and explanation behind the decision. For non-experimental research on animals must comply with local or international guidelines, and has been approved by ethics committee, if required.  


Manuscript Preparation

Formatting

     1. Authors are advised to first carefully select the appropriate ‘type of article’ for their manuscript from the ‘Information for authors.’ You should format your manuscript according to the article type and journal’s special requirements. 
     2. Manuscripts must be submitted in English language only, submissions in other language will not be considered for publication.
     3. Manuscripts that do not meet the required English language standard will be returned to the authors.
     4. Your manuscript should be formatted with double spacing, line and page numbers and single column, so that it is easy to read in word document. 
     5. Inclusion of footnotes should be avoided, if essential, should be numbered consecutively at the foot of the page.
     6. Authors are suggested to clearly distinguish the hierarchy of headings within the manuscript by numbering the headings and subheadings.
     7. Do not use multiple fonts and font sizes in manuscript. 

Figures

Figures include photographs or radiographs, drawings, graphs, bar charts, flow charts, and pathways, but NOT lists or tables. All figures must be cited in text part of the manuscript. Figures must be cited sequentially in the main text. Number all figures sequentially in the order they are cited in the text. Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. Figure captions should be written after the reference list. Figure captions should include a description of the figure and/or each lettered part (A, B, etc.) and of any portions of the figure highlighted by arrows, arrowheads, asterisks, etc. If figure is taken from other publisher (with permission), add a credit line in parentheses at the end of each figure legend. This credit line should be a complete bibliographic listing of the source publication (as a reference), or other credit line as supplied by the copyright holder.    

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Create tables using the Table function in Microsoft Word. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Data given in tables should be commented on but not repeated in the text. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells. Tables should appear after the figure captions. Tables must be double-spaced and numbered in the same sequence they are cited in the text. A short descriptive title should be provided for each table. If a table contains artwork, supply the artwork separately as a digital file.  If table is taken from other publication (used with permission), add a credit line as the first footnote beneath each table. This credit line should be a complete bibliographical listing of the source publication (as a reference), or other credit line as supplied by the copyright holder. Any abbreviations used in the table should be explained at the end of the table in a footnote. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Create tables using the Table function in Microsoft Word. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Data given in tables should be commented on but not repeated in the text. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells. Tables should appear after the figure captions. Tables must be double-spaced and numbered in the same sequence they are cited in the text. A short descriptive title should be provided for each table. If a table contains artwork, supply the artwork separately as a digital file.  If table is taken from other publication (used with permission), add a credit line as the first footnote beneath each table. This credit line should be a complete bibliographical listing of the source publication (as a reference), or other credit line as supplied by the copyright holder. Any abbreviations used in the table should be explained at the end of the table in a footnote.

Manuscript Arrangement

Title Page

Title page contains basic information such as title, author(s) name, author(s) affiliation, corresponding author description, running title, word count, number of tables and figures.

Article titleThe title should be short and concise, omitting terms that are implicit, and covers a brief statement of research inside. Authors should avoid ambiguous or vague title, if possible. Abbreviations should be avoided within the title. The running title should be a maximum of 50 character, including spaces.

Author(s) name and affiliation: All names should be listed together and separated by commas.  Author’s affiliations should be keyed to the author’s name with superscript numbers. Affiliation comprises the laboratory or department, university or organization and its location, city, state/province, country etc. The corresponding author(s) should be marked with an asterisk in the author list. Complete postal address (including telephone number and email address) of the corresponding author is requisite for archiving.

Abstract

Abstract outlines the study purpose, procedure, key findings of the study, and principal conclusions. Abstract should include all the salient points of the manuscript in consistent way. The abstract must be factual and comprehensive and may be structured or unstructured (without headings), depending on types of article. Preferably in abstract abbreviations, acronyms, references, figures and tables should be avoided.

Trial Registration Number (TRN) should be included in abstract part of clinical trial articles. If the data have been deposited in a public repository, authors should state at the end of the abstract the unique, persistent data set identifier, repository name and number.

Keywords

Keywords relevant to the article should be listed below the abstract. All article types require a minimum five and maximum eight keywords.

Abbreviations

All cited abbreviations should be expanded after keywords. Abbreviations cited in tables should be listed at the bottom of the table; abbreviations cited in figures should be explicated in the figure legend.

Text

Authors are urged to refer ‘Article Types’ section of the ‘Information for Authors’ page for information on the relevant article structure, format and reporting guideline.

Acknowledgment

It is a short text to acknowledge the contributions of colleagues, institutions, or agencies that support the author in scientific research or helps in manuscript preparation.

Conflict of Interest

All submitted manuscripts must contain a Statement of Ethics (if applicable) and a Conflict of Interest Statement after the main body of the text, but before the reference list. For example:

“The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.”

Funding Information

List all the sources of funding, including relevant research grant numbers, as applicable. Also, authors are encouraged to list all the contributing authors associated with specific funding, if applicable.

Supplementary Material

Supplementary materials are dataset directly relevant but not essential to the conclusion of the manuscript. Supplementary material should be submitted with primary manuscript at the time of submission.  Supplementary material will undergo peer review and play critical role in editorial decision.  All supplementary files should be referred in the main text. Generally, it will not go for editing or formatting, but it is desired to meet the journal production standard.

Acceptable files size should be less than 10 MB and formats are Word or PDF files, Excel spreadsheets (rarely), and multimedia files. Online supplementary material is hosted for free with a published article. 


Article Processing Charges

Publication in journal is free of cost. 


Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online through manuscript submission portal or directly via the email to editorial office. Before submission, please read the ‘Information for Authors’ to confirm that your manuscript is now ready to submit.

Manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter outlining how your study contributes to the scientific literature, a statement that contribution is original and is not currently under evaluation by another publisher; should be provided. Cover letter includes a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors. Cover letter, manuscript, tables, figures, and supplementary documents must be submitted in separate files.

If your submission comes under special issue of the journal, please refer to the specific name of the special issue in your cover letter.